Engineering Resources OLD

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Stabilizing Multiplier Chain Conversion Efficiency with Reflectionless Filters

Reflections from out of band signals in multiplier chains have been a longstanding problem for circuit designers grappling with unwanted effects of frequency translation. This experiment shows how reflectionless filters can eliminate standing waves and dramatically improve conversion loss efficiency when paired with frequency doublers and X4 multiplier chains.

Impedance Matching Devices

Explore impedance matching techniques and understand the differences between the various types of impedance matching devices, from step transitions to L-C networks, quarter-wave transformers and more.

Specifying VCOs for Clock Timing Circuits

Timing is everything for many systems, especially for modern electronic systems with high-speed data converters and high-resolution sampling. A clock source is “the keeper of time” in these systems and system timing performance is very much dependent upon the performance of its clock source. Many designers have learned to appreciate the flexibility of using voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs) as clock sources.

VCO Footprints

Three basic types of VCO’s are manufactured by Mini-Circuits: plug-in, surface mount, and connectorized versions. To obtain the best overall performance from Mini-Circuits VCO’s, good RF practices should be used. A double sided printed circuit board with plated through holes is recommended.