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Characterizing and Minimizing VCO Phase Noise
The term phase noise is widely used for describing short term random frequency fluctuations of a signal. Frequency stability is a measure of the degree to which an oscillator maintains the same value of frequency over a given time.
An Introduction to Limiters
Mini-Circuits' limiters cover a very broad frequency range from 3 KHz to 900 MHz, dynamic range from +3 to +20 dBM, and provide exceptionally hard limiting of 0.05 dB output change per dB input change.
How to Select a Mixer
Select the proper mixer for your needs. There are hundreds of models available. Under-specify and face marginal performance, over-specify and pay for more than you need. Here's the proper approach.
Terms and Definitions: Directional Couplers
All the terms you need to know to make informed decisions about the right direction coupler for your application.
DAT Series Powered Through a Voltage Divider Network
The Mini-Circuits DAT series is specified to operate with supply voltages over the range of 2.7V to 3.3V. When operating over this range, the parts meet all their specified performance parameters over the operating environmental ranges.
Figure of Merit of Mixer Intermod Performance
Higher IP3, up to a point, can be obtained in a mixer at the expense of LO power in a given design; or, by a better design. Higher LO power means more DC power and more hardware. This paper defines a figure of merit that will be useful in judging the IP3 performance of mixers.
Frequently Asked Questions About Directional Couplers
Read through frequently asked questions about directional couplers for all you need to know about general information and specific applications.
Novel Passive FET Mixers Provide Superior Dynamic Range
The dual-double-balanced configuration of these FET mixers helps to improve dynamic range with reduced conversion loss and noise figure without expending DC bias.
Fixed Attenuators Help Minimize Impedance Mismatches
Fixed attenuators are invaluable problem solvers for circuit-level and system-level designers. In addition to controlling amplitude levels, fixed attenuators can improve the impedance match between impedance-sensitive devices, such as amplifiers and filters, and provide the isolation needed to stabilize oscillators.
Improve Two-Tone, Third-Order Intermodulation Testing
Two-tone, third-order distortion must be measured under specific performance conditions. The two most common errors in the measuring process are (1) failure to provide adequate isolation between the two input signal generators and proper impedance matching, and (2) insufficient filtering of the two input test signals.
RF transformers are widely used in low-power electronic circuits for impedance matching to achieve maximum power transfer, for voltage step-up or step-down, and for isolating DC from two circuits while maintaining ac continuity.
Automated Load Pull Measurement of Voltage Controlled Oscillators
It is a standard industry practice to measure the variation of the frequency when the VCO output is seeing a load with 12 dB return loss. A skilled technician may take minutes to hours manually. Mini-Circuits has developed an electronic line stretcher that can be used to automate these measurements.