VCO Footprints

VCO Footprints

Layout Considerations to Improve Performance Three basic types of VCO’s are manufactured by Mini-Circuits: plug-in, surface mount, and connectorized versions. To obtain the best overall performance from Mini-Circuits VCO’s, good RF practices should be...
Phase Locked Loop Fundamentals

Phase Locked Loop Fundamentals

The basic form of a phase locked loop (PLL) consists of a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), a phase detector (PD), and a filter. In its more general form (Figure 1), the PLL may also contain a mixer and a digital divider. In the steady state, the frequency of the...
Synthesizer Design

Synthesizer Design

The design example covered here is an 800 to 900 MHz synthesizer in 100 kHz steps with a minimum output power of 10 mW across the band. Mini-Circuits model POS-1060, a low noise voltage controlled oscillator that operates over the range of 750 to 1060 MHz, is used....
VCO Test Methods

VCO Test Methods

How to Measure Output Power and Frequency Figure 1 is a block diagram of the setup for this measurement. Well regulated power supplies are recommended for tuning and VCO supplies. Bias tee’s in the DC and tuning voltage lines help reduce the power supply noise....